Hemophilia with factor VIII and factor IX inhibitors, incidence, bleeding problems and management.
Mahasandana C, Patharathienskul D, Suvatte V
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1993 24 Suppl 1:106-12
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Among 117 cases of hemophilia, there were 7 hemophilia A and 2 hemophilia B with factor VIII and factor IX inhibitors diagnosed at the Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The overall incidence of hemophilia with inhibitors was 7.7%. Eight cases (6 hemophilia A. 2 hemophilia B) were severe hemophilia and 1 moderate hemophilia A. The average age of the inhibitor detection was about 5 years. Of the 9 cases, 7 had high inhibitor titers and 2 had low inhibitor titers. The frequency of bleeding problems before and after inhibitor detection were not different. The bleedings included hemarthrosis, mucosal bleed, hematoma, oozing from wound, hematuria and intracranial hemorrhage. The treatment of hemarthrosis in hemophilia A with low inhibitor titers was the combination of short course of prednisolone and single large dose factor VIII. In high inhibitor titer patients with acute hemarthrosis (both hemophilia A and hemophilia B), the treatment consisted of prednisolone short course and single high dose of PCC. For bleeding control in both high and low inhibitor titer with mucosal bleeds, oozing from wounds, central nervous system bleeding and hematuria, the combination was used of high dose factor VIII or factor IX for 2 days, and tranexamic acid, prednisolone, cyclophosphamide were required. In life-threatening hemorrhage and surgical operation, plasmapheresis and large dosage factor VIII or factor IX were the treatment of choice. All supportive measures were also important in every case of mucosal bleeds, wounds and surgical operations. The result of treatment revealed one death from massive intracranial hemorrhage and 8 survivals, with joint contracture in 2 cases. All still have inhibitor detected, but in low titer.